The ARKode infrastructure provides adaptive-step time integration
modules for stiff, nonstiff and mixed stiff/nonstiff systems of
ordinary differential equations (ODEs). ARKode itself is structured
to support a wide range of one-step (but multi-stage) methods,
allowing for rapid development of parallel implementations of
state-of-the-art time integration methods. At present, ARKode is
packaged with two time-stepping modules, *ARKStep* and *ERKStep*.

*ARKStep* supports ODE systems posed in split, linearly-implicit form,

(1)¶\[M \dot{y} = f^E(t,y) + f^I(t,y), \qquad y(t_0) = y_0,\]

where \(t\) is the independent variable, \(y\) is the set of dependent variables (in \(\mathbb{R}^N\)), \(M\) is a user-specified, nonsingular operator from \(\mathbb{R}^N\) to \(\mathbb{R}^N\), and the right-hand side function is partitioned into up to two components:

- \(f^E(t,y)\) contains the “nonstiff” time scale components to be integrated explicitly, and
- \(f^I(t,y)\) contains the “stiff” time scale components to be integrated implicitly.

Either of these operators may be disabled, allowing for fully explicit, fully implicit, or combination implicit-explicit (ImEx) time integration.

The algorithms used in ARKStep are adaptive- and fixed-step additive Runge Kutta methods. Such methods are defined through combining two complementary Runge-Kutta methods: one explicit (ERK) and the other diagonally implicit (DIRK). Through appropriately partitioning the ODE right-hand side into explicit and implicit components (1), such methods have the potential to enable accurate and efficient time integration of stiff, nonstiff, and mixed stiff/nonstiff systems of ordinary differential equations. A key feature allowing for high efficiency of these methods is that only the components in \(f^I(t,y)\) must be solved implicitly, allowing for splittings tuned for use with optimal implicit solver algorithms.

This framework allows for significant freedom over the constitutive methods used for each component, and ARKode is packaged with a wide array of built-in methods for use. These built-in Butcher tables include adaptive explicit methods of orders 2-8, adaptive implicit methods of orders 2-5, and adaptive ImEx methods of orders 3-5.

*ERKStep* focuses specifically on problems posed in explicit form,

(2)¶\[\dot{y} = f(t,y), \qquad y(t_0) = y_0.\]

allowing for increased computational efficiency and memory savings. The algorithms used in ERKStep are adaptive- and fixed-step explicit Runge Kutta methods. As with ARKStep, the ERKStep module is packaged with adaptive explicit methods of orders 2-8.

For problems that include nonzero implicit term \(f^I(t,y)\), the
resulting implicit system (assumed nonlinear, unless specified
otherwise) is solved approximately at each integration step, using a
modified Newton method, inexact Newton method, or an
accelerated fixed-point solver. For the Newton-based methods and the
serial or threaded NVECTOR modules in SUNDIALS, ARKode may use a
variety of linear solvers provided with SUNDIALS, including both
direct (dense, band, or sparse) and preconditioned Krylov iterative
(GMRES [SS1986], BiCGStab [V1992], TFQMR [F1993], FGMRES [S1993],
or PCG [HS1952]) linear solvers. When used with the MPI-based
parallel, PETSc, *hypre*, CUDA, and Raja NVECTOR modules, or a
user-provided vector data structure, only the Krylov solvers are
available, although a user may supply their own linear solver for any
data structures if desired. For the serial or threaded vector
structures, we provide a banded preconditioner module called ARKBANDPRE
that may be used with the Krylov solvers, while for the MPI-based
parallel vector structure there is a preconditioner module called
ARKBBDPRE which provides a band-block-diagonal preconditioner.
Additionally, a user may supply more optimal, problem-specific
preconditioner routines.

Added full support for time-dependent mass matrices in ARKStep, and expanded existing non-identity mass matrix infrastructure to support use of the fixed point nonlinear solver. Fixed bug for ERK method integration with static mass matrices.

An interface between ARKStep and the XBraid multigrid reduction in time (MGRIT)
library [XBraid] has been added to enable parallel-in-time integration. See the
Multigrid Reduction in Time with XBraid section for more information and the example
codes in `examples/arkode/CXX_xbraid`

. This interface required the addition of
three new N_Vector operations to exchange vector data between computational
nodes, see `N_VBufSize()`

, `N_VBufPack()`

, and
`N_VBufUnpack()`

. These N_Vector operations are only used within the
XBraid interface and need not be implemented for any other context.

Updated the MRIStep time-stepping module in ARKode to support higher-order MRI-GARK methods [S2019], including methods that involve solve-decoupled, diagonally-implicit treatment of the slow time scale.

Added the functions `ARKStepSetLSNormFactor()`

,
`ARKStepSetMassLSNormFactor()`

, and `MRIStepSetLSNormFactor()`

to specify the factor for converting between integrator tolerances (WRMS norm)
and linear solver tolerances (L2 norm) i.e.,
`tol_L2 = nrmfac * tol_WRMS`

.

Added new reset functions `ARKStepReset()`

, `ERKStepReset()`

,
and `MRIStepReset()`

to reset the stepper time and state vector to
user-provided values for continuing the integration from that point while
retaining the integration history. These function complement the
reinitialization functions `ARKStepReInit()`

, `ERKStepReInit()`

,
and `MRIStepReInit()`

which reinitialize the stepper so that the problem
integration should resume as if started from scratch.

Added new functions `ARKStepComputeState()`

,
`ARKStepGetNonlinearSystemData()`

, `MRIStepComputeState()`

, and
`MRIStepGetNonlinearSystemData()`

which advanced users might find useful
if providing a custom `SUNNonlinSolSysFn()`

.

The expected behavior of `SUNNonlinSolGetNumIters()`

and
`SUNNonlinSolGetNumConvFails()`

in the SUNNonlinearSolver API have been
updated to specify that they should return the number of nonlinear solver
iterations and convergence failures in the most recent solve respectively rather
than the cumulative number of iterations and failures across all solves
respectively. The API documentation and SUNDIALS provided SUNNonlinearSolver
implementations have been updated accordingly. As before, the cumulative number
of nonlinear iterations may be retrieved by calling
`ARKStepGetNumNonlinSolvIters()`

, the cumulative number of failures with
`ARKStepGetNumNonlinSolvConvFails()`

, or both with
`ARKStepGetNonlinSolvStats()`

.

A minor bug in checking the Jacobian evaluation frequency has been fixed. As a
result codes using using a non-default Jacobian update frequency through a call
to `ARKStepSetMaxStepsBetweenJac()`

will need to increase the provided
value by 1 to achieve the same behavior as before. Additionally, for greater
clarity the functions `ARKStepSetMaxStepsBetweenLSet()`

and
`ARKStepSetMaxStepsBetweenJac()`

have been deprecated and replaced with
`ARKStepSetLSetupFrequency()`

and `ARKStepSetJacEvalFrequency()`

respectively.

The `NVECTOR_RAJA`

module has been updated to mirror the `NVECTOR_CUDA`

module.
Notably, the update adds managed memory support to the `NVECTOR_RAJA`

module.
Users of the module will need to update any calls to the `N_VMake_Raja`

function
because that signature was changed. This module remains experimental and is
subject to change from version to version.

The `NVECTOR_TRILINOS`

module has been updated to work with Trilinos 12.18+.
This update changes the local ordinal type to always be an `int`

.

Added support for CUDA v11.

Fixed a bug in ARKode where the prototypes for `ERKStepSetMinReduction()`

and `ARKStepSetMinReduction()`

were not included in `arkode_erkstep.h`

and `arkode_arkstep.h`

respectively.

Fixed a bug where inequality constraint checking would need to be disabled and
then re-enabled to update the inequality constraint values after resizing a
problem. Resizing a problem will now disable constraints and a call to
`ARKStepSetConstraints()`

or `ERKStepSetConstraints()`

is
required to re-enable constraint checking for the new problem size.

Fixed a bug in the iterative linear solver modules where an error is not
returned if the Atimes function is `NULL`

or, if preconditioning is enabled,
the PSolve function is `NULL`

.

Added the ability to control the CUDA kernel launch parameters for the
`NVECTOR_CUDA`

and `SUNMATRIX_CUSPARSE`

modules. These modules remain
experimental and are subject to change from version to version.
In addition, the `NVECTOR_CUDA`

kernels were rewritten to be more flexible.
Most users should see equivalent performance or some improvement, but a select
few may observe minor performance degradation with the default settings. Users
are encouraged to contact the SUNDIALS team about any perfomance changes
that they notice.

Added the optional function `ARKStepSetJacTimesRhsFn()`

to specify an
alternative implicit right-hand side function for computing Jacobian-vector
products with the internal difference quotient approximation.

Added new capabilities for monitoring the solve phase in the `SUNNONLINSOL_NEWTON`

and `SUNNONLINSOL_FIXEDPOINT`

modules, and the SUNDIALS iterative linear solver
modules. SUNDIALS must be built with the CMake option
`SUNDIALS_BUILD_WITH_MONITORING`

to use these capabilties.

Fixed a build system bug related to the Fortran 2003 interfaces when using the
IBM XL compiler. When building the Fortran 2003 interfaces with an XL compiler
it is recommended to set `CMAKE_Fortran_COMPILER`

to `f2003`

, `xlf2003`

,
or `xlf2003_r`

.

Fixed a bug in how ARKode interfaces with a user-supplied, iterative, unscaled linear solver.
In this case, ARKode adjusts the linear solver tolerance in an attempt to account for the
lack of support for left/right scaling matrices. Previously, ARKode computed this scaling
factor using the error weight vector, `ewt`

; this fix changes that to the residual weight vector,
`rwt`

, that can differ from `ewt`

when solving problems with non-identity mass matrix.

Fixed a similar bug in how ARKode interfaces with scaled linear solvers when solving problems
with non-identity mass matrices. Here, the left scaling matrix should correspond with `rwt`

and the right scaling matrix with `ewt`

; these were reversed but are now correct.

Fixed a bug where a non-default value for the maximum allowed growth factor after the first step would be ignored.

The function `ARKStepSetLinearSolutionScaling()`

was added to
enable or disable the scaling applied to linear system solutions with
matrix-based linear solvers to account for a lagged value of \(\gamma\) in
the linear system matrix e.g., \(M - \gamma J\) or \(I - \gamma J\).
Scaling is enabled by default when using a matrix-based linear solver.

Added two new functions, `ARKStepSetMinReduction()`

and
`ERKStepSetMinReduction()`

, to change the minimum allowed step size
reduction factor after an error test failure.

Added a new `SUNMatrix`

implementation, The SUNMATRIX_CUSPARSE Module, that interfaces
to the sparse matrix implementation from the NVIDIA cuSPARSE library. In addition,
the The SUNLinSol_cuSolverSp_batchQR Module `SUNLinearSolver`

has been updated to
use this matrix, as such, users of this module will need to update their code.
These modules are still considered to be experimental, thus they are subject to
breaking changes even in minor releases.

Added a new “stiff” interpolation module, based on Lagrange polynomial interpolation,
that is accessible to each of the ARKStep, ERKStep and MRIStep time-stepping modules.
This module is designed to provide increased interpolation accuracy when integrating
stiff problems, as opposed to the ARKode-standard Hermite interpolation module that
can suffer when the IVP right-hand side has large Lipschitz constant. While the
Hermite module remains the default, the new Lagrange module may be enabled using one
of the routines `ARKStepSetInterpolantType()`

, `ERKStepSetInterpolantType()`

,
or `MRIStepSetInterpolantType()`

. The serial example problem `ark_brusselator.c`

has been converted to use this Lagrange interpolation module. Created accompanying routines
`ARKStepSetInterpolantDegree()`

, `ARKStepSetInterpolantDegree()`

and
`ARKStepSetInterpolantDegree()`

to provide user control over these
interpolating polynomials. While the routines `ARKStepSetDenseOrder()`

,
`ARKStepSetDenseOrder()`

and `ARKStepSetDenseOrder()`

still exist,
these have been deprecated and will be removed in a future release.

Fixed a build system bug related to finding LAPACK/BLAS.

Fixed a build system bug related to checking if the KLU library works.

Fixed a build system bug related to finding PETSc when using the CMake
variables `PETSC_INCLUDES`

and `PETSC_LIBRARIES`

instead of
`PETSC_DIR`

.

Added a new build system option, `CUDA_ARCH`

, that can be used to specify
the CUDA architecture to compile for.

Fixed a bug in the Fortran 2003 interfaces to the ARKode Butcher table routines and structure.
This includes changing the `ARKodeButcherTable`

type to be a `type(c_ptr)`

in Fortran.

Added two utility functions, `SUNDIALSFileOpen`

and `SUNDIALSFileClose`

for creating/destroying file pointers that are useful when using the Fortran
2003 interfaces.

Added support for a user-supplied function to update the prediction for each
implicit stage solution in ARKStep. If supplied, this routine will be called
*after* any existing ARKStep predictor algorithm completes, so that the
predictor may be modified by the user as desired. The new user-supplied routine
has type `ARKStepStagePredictFn`

, and may be set by calling
`ARKStepSetStagePredictFn()`

.

The MRIStep module has been updated to support attaching different user data
pointers to the inner and outer integrators. If applicable, user codes will
need to add a call to `ARKStepSetUserData()`

to attach their user data
pointer to the inner integrator memory as `MRIStepSetUserData()`

will
not set the pointer for both the inner and outer integrators. The MRIStep
examples have been updated to reflect this change.

Added support for constant damping to the `SUNNonlinearSolver_FixedPoint`

module when using Anderson acceleration. See SUNNonlinearSolver_FixedPoint description
and the `SUNNonlinSolSetDamping_FixedPoint()`

for more details.

**Build system changes**

Increased the minimum required CMake version to 3.5 for most SUNDIALS configurations, and 3.10 when CUDA or OpenMP with device offloading are enabled.

The CMake option `BLAS_ENABLE`

and the variable `BLAS_LIBRARIES`

have been
removed to simplify builds as SUNDIALS packages do not use BLAS directly. For
third party libraries that require linking to BLAS, the path to the BLAS
library should be included in the `_LIBRARIES`

variable for the third party
library e.g., `SUPERLUDIST_LIBRARIES`

when enabling SuperLU_DIST.

Fixed a bug in the build system that prevented the PThreads NVECTOR module from being built.

**NVECTOR module changes**

Two new functions were added to aid in creating custom NVECTOR objects. The
constructor `N_VNewEmpty()`

allocates an “empty” generic NVECTOR with
the object’s content pointer and the function pointers in the operations
structure initialized to `NULL`

. When used in the constructor for custom
objects this function will ease the introduction of any new optional operations
to the NVECTOR API by ensuring only required operations need to be set.
Additionally, the function `N_VCopyOps()`

has been added to copy the
operation function pointers between vector objects. When used in clone routines
for custom vector objects these functions also will ease the introduction of
any new optional operations to the NVECTOR API by ensuring all operations
are copied when cloning objects.

Two new NVECTOR implementations, NVECTOR_MANYVECTOR and NVECTOR_MPIMANYVECTOR, have been created to support flexible partitioning of solution data among different processing elements (e.g., CPU + GPU) or for multi-physics problems that couple distinct MPI-based simulations together. This implementation is accompanied by additions to user documentation and SUNDIALS examples.

One new required vector operation and ten new optional vector operations have
been added to the NVECTOR API. The new required operation, `N_VGetLength()`

,
returns the global length of an `N_Vector`

. The optional operations have
been added to support the new NVECTOR_MPIMANYVECTOR implementation. The
operation `N_VGetCommunicator()`

must be implemented by subvectors that are
combined to create an NVECTOR_MPIMANYVECTOR, but is not used outside of
this context. The remaining nine operations are optional local reduction
operations intended to eliminate unnecessary latency when performing vector
reduction operations (norms, etc.) on distributed memory systems. The optional
local reduction vector operations are
`N_VDotProdLocal()`

,
`N_VMaxNormLocal()`

,
`N_VMinLocal()`

,
`N_VL1NormLocal()`

,
`N_VWSqrSumLocal()`

,
`N_VWSqrSumMaskLocal()`

,
`N_VInvTestLocal()`

,
`N_VConstrMaskLocal()`

, and
`N_VMinQuotientLocal()`

.
If an NVECTOR implementation defines any of the local operations as
`NULL`

, then the NVECTOR_MPIMANYVECTOR will call standard NVECTOR
operations to complete the computation.

An additional NVECTOR implementation, NVECTOR_MPIPLUSX, has been created to
support the MPI+X paradigm where X is a type of on-node parallelism
(*e.g.*, OpenMP, CUDA). The implementation is accompanied by additions to
user documentation and SUNDIALS examples.

The `*_MPICuda`

and `*_MPIRaja`

functions have been removed from the
NVECTOR_CUDA and NVECTOR_RAJA implementations respectively. Accordingly, the
`nvector_mpicuda.h`

, `nvector_mpiraja.h`

, `libsundials_nvecmpicuda.lib`

,
and `libsundials_nvecmpicudaraja.lib`

files have been removed. Users should
use the NVECTOR_MPIPLUSX module coupled in conjunction with the NVECTOR_CUDA
or NVECTOR_RAJA modules to replace the functionality. The necessary changes are
minimal and should require few code modifications. See the programs in
`examples/ida/mpicuda`

and `examples/ida/mpiraja`

for examples of how to
use the NVECTOR_MPIPLUSX module with the NVECTOR_CUDA and NVECTOR_RAJA modules
respectively.

Fixed a memory leak in the NVECTOR_PETSC module clone function.

Made performance improvements to the NVECTOR_CUDA module. Users who utilize a non-default stream should no longer see default stream synchronizations after memory transfers.

Added a new constructor to the NVECTOR_CUDA module that allows a user to provide custom allocate and free functions for the vector data array and internal reduction buffer.

Added new Fortran 2003 interfaces for most NVECTOR modules. See the Using ARKode for Fortran Applications section for more details.

Added three new NVECTOR utility functions,
`N_VGetVecAtIndexVectorArray()`

`N_VSetVecAtIndexVectorArray()`

, and
`N_VNewVectorArray()`

,
for working with `N_Vector`

arrays when using the Fortran 2003 interfaces.

**SUNMatrix module changes**

Two new functions were added to aid in creating custom SUNMATRIX objects. The
constructor `SUNMatNewEmpty()`

allocates an “empty” generic SUNMATRIX with
the object’s content pointer and the function pointers in the operations
structure initialized to `NULL`

. When used in the constructor for custom
objects this function will ease the introduction of any new optional operations
to the SUNMATRIX API by ensuring only required operations need to be set.
Additionally, the function `SUNMatCopyOps()`

has been added to copy the
operation function pointers between matrix objects. When used in clone routines
for custom matrix objects these functions also will ease the introduction of any
new optional operations to the SUNMATRIX API by ensuring all operations are
copied when cloning objects.

A new operation, `SUNMatMatvecSetup()`

, was added to the SUNMATRIX API.
Users who have implemented custom SUNMATRIX modules will need to at least
update their code to set the corresponding `ops`

structure member,
`matvecsetup`

, to `NULL`

.

A new operation, `SUNMatMatvecSetup()`

, was added to the SUNMATRIX API
to perform any setup necessary for computing a matrix-vector product. This
operation is useful for SUNMATRIX implementations which need to prepare the
matrix itself, or communication structures before performing the matrix-vector
product. Users who have implemented custom SUNMATRIX modules will need to at
least update their code to set the corresponding `ops`

structure member,
`matvecsetup`

, to `NULL`

.

The generic SUNMATRIX API now defines error codes to be returned by SUNMATRIX operations. Operations which return an integer flag indiciating success/failure may return different values than previously.

A new SUNMATRIX (and SUNLINEARSOLVER) implementation was added to facilitate the use of the SuperLU_DIST library with SUNDIALS.

Added new Fortran 2003 interfaces for most SUNMATRIX modules. See the Using ARKode for Fortran Applications section for more details.

**SUNLinearSolver module changes**

A new function was added to aid in creating custom SUNLINEARSOLVER objects.
The constructor `SUNLinSolNewEmpty()`

allocates an “empty” generic
SUNLINEARSOLVER with the object’s content pointer and the function pointers
in the operations structure initialized to `NULL`

. When used in the
constructor for custom objects this function will ease the introduction of any
new optional operations to the SUNLINEARSOLVER API by ensuring only required
operations need to be set.

The return type of the SUNLINEARSOLVER API function `SUNLinSolLastFlag()`

has changed from `long int`

to `sunindextype`

to be consistent with the
type used to store row indices in dense and banded linear solver modules.

Added a new optional operation to the SUNLINEARSOLVER API,
`SUNLinSolGetID()`

, that returns a `SUNLinearSolver_ID`

for identifying
the linear solver module.

The SUNLINEARSOLVER API has been updated to make the initialize and setup functions optional.

A new SUNLINEARSOLVER (and SUNMATRIX) implementation was added to facilitate the use of the SuperLU_DIST library with SUNDIALS.

Added a new SUNLinearSolver implementation, `SUNLinearSolver_cuSolverSp_batchQR`

,
which leverages the NVIDIA cuSOLVER sparse batched QR method for efficiently
solving block diagonal linear systems on NVIDIA GPUs.

Added three new accessor functions to the SUNLinSol_KLU module,
`SUNLinSol_KLUGetSymbolic()`

, `SUNLinSol_KLUGetNumeric()`

, and
`SUNLinSol_KLUGetCommon()`

, to provide user access to the underlying
KLU solver structures.

Added new Fortran 2003 interfaces for most SUNLINEARSOLVER modules. See the Using ARKode for Fortran Applications section for more details.

**SUNNonlinearSolver module changes**

A new function was added to aid in creating custom SUNNONLINEARSOLVER
objects. The constructor `SUNNonlinSolNewEmpty()`

allocates an “empty”
generic SUNNONLINEARSOLVER with the object’s content pointer and the function
pointers in the operations structure initialized to `NULL`

. When used in the
constructor for custom objects this function will ease the introduction of any
new optional operations to the SUNNONLINEARSOLVER API by ensuring only
required operations need to be set.

To facilitate the use of user supplied nonlinear solver convergence test
functions the `SUNNonlinSolSetConvTestFn()`

function in the
SUNNONLINEARSOLVER API has been updated to take a `void*`

data pointer as
input. The supplied data pointer will be passed to the nonlinear solver
convergence test function on each call.

The inputs values passed to the first two inputs of the `SUNNonlinSolSolve()`

function in the SUNNONLINEARSOLVER have been changed to be the predicted
state and the initial guess for the correction to that state. Additionally,
the definitions of `SUNNonlinSolLSetupFn`

and `SUNNonlinSolLSolveFn`

in the SUNNONLINEARSOLVER API have been updated to remove unused input
parameters.

Added a new `SUNNonlinearSolver`

implementation, `SUNNonlinsol_PetscSNES`

,
which interfaces to the PETSc SNES nonlinear solver API.

Added new Fortran 2003 interfaces for most SUNNONLINEARSOLVER modules. See the Using ARKode for Fortran Applications section for more details.

**ARKode changes**

The MRIStep module has been updated to support explicit, implicit, or IMEX
methods as the fast integrator using the ARKStep module. As a result some
function signatures have been changed including `MRIStepCreate()`

which
now takes an ARKStep memory structure for the fast integration as an input.

Fixed a bug in the ARKStep time-stepping module that would result in an infinite loop if the nonlinear solver failed to converge more than the maximum allowed times during a single step.

Fixed a bug that would result in a “too much accuracy requested” error when using fixed time step sizes with explicit methods in some cases.

Fixed a bug in ARKStep where the mass matrix linear solver setup function was not called in the Matrix-free case.

Fixed a minor bug in ARKStep where an incorrect flag is reported when an error occurs in the mass matrix setup or Jacobian-vector product setup functions.

Fixed a memeory leak in FARKODE when not using the default nonlinear solver.

The reinitialization functions `ERKStepReInit()`

,
`ARKStepReInit()`

, and `MRIStepReInit()`

have been updated to
retain the minimum and maxiumum step size values from before reinitialization
rather than resetting them to the default values.

Removed extraneous calls to `N_VMin()`

for simulations where
the scalar valued absolute tolerance, or all entries of the
vector-valued absolute tolerance array, are strictly positive. In
this scenario, ARKode will remove at least one global reduction per
time step.

The ARKLS interface has been updated to only zero the Jacobian matrix before
calling a user-supplied Jacobian evaluation function when the attached linear
solver has type `SUNLINEARSOLVER_DIRECT`

.

A new linear solver interface function `ARKLsLinSysFn()`

was added as an
alternative method for evaluating the linear system \(A = M - \gamma J\).

Added two new embedded ARK methods of orders 4 and 5 to ARKode (from [KC2019]).

Support for optional inequality constraints on individual components of the
solution vector has been added the ARKode ERKStep and ARKStep modules. See
the descriptions of `ERKStepSetConstraints()`

and
`ARKStepSetConstraints()`

for more details. Note that enabling
constraint handling requires the NVECTOR operations `N_VMinQuotient()`

,
`N_VConstrMask()`

, and `N_VCompare()`

that were not previously
required by ARKode.

Added two new ‘Get’ functions to ARKStep, `ARKStepGetCurrentGamma()`

,
and `ARKStepGetCurrentState()`

, that may be useful to users who choose
to provide their own nonlinear solver implementation.

Add two new ‘Set’ functions to MRIStep, `MRIStepSetPreInnerFn()`

and
`MRIStepSetPostInnerFn()`

for performing communication or memory
transfers needed before or after the inner integration.

A new Fortran 2003 interface to ARKode was added. This includes Fortran 2003 interfaces to the ARKStep, ERKStep, and MRIStep time-stepping modules. See the Using ARKode for Fortran Applications section for more details.

An additional NVECTOR implementation was added for the Tpetra vector from the Trilinos library to facilitate interoperability between SUNDIALS and Trilinos. This implementation is accompanied by additions to user documentation and SUNDIALS examples.

A bug was fixed where a nonlinear solver object could be freed twice in some use cases.

The `EXAMPLES_ENABLE_RAJA`

CMake option has been removed. The option `EXAMPLES_ENABLE_CUDA`

enables all examples that use CUDA including the RAJA examples with a CUDA back end
(if the RAJA NVECTOR is enabled).

The implementation header file arkode_impl.h is no longer installed. This means users
who are directly manipulating the `ARKodeMem`

structure will need to update their code
to use ARKode’s public API.

Python is no longer required to run `make test`

and `make test_install`

.

Fixed a bug in `ARKodeButcherTable_Write`

when printing a Butcher table
without an embedding.

Added information on how to contribute to SUNDIALS and a contributing agreement.

A bug in ARKode where single precision builds would fail to compile has been fixed.

The ARKode library has been entirely rewritten to support a modular
approach to one-step methods, which should allow rapid research and
development of novel integration methods without affecting existing
solver functionality. To support this, the existing ARK-based methods
have been encapsulated inside the new `ARKStep`

time-stepping
module. Two new time-stepping modules have been added:

- The
`ERKStep`

module provides an optimized implementation for explicit Runge-Kutta methods with reduced storage and number of calls to the ODE right-hand side function. - The
`MRIStep`

module implements two-rate explicit-explicit multirate infinitesimal step methods utilizing different step sizes for slow and fast processes in an additive splitting.

This restructure has resulted in numerous small changes to the user
interface, particularly the suite of “Set” routines for user-provided
solver parameters and “Get” routines to access solver statistics,
that are now prefixed with the name of time-stepping module (e.g., `ARKStep`

or `ERKStep`

) instead of `ARKode`

. Aside from affecting the names of these
routines, user-level changes have been kept to a minimum. However, we recommend
that users consult both this documentation and the ARKode example programs for
further details on the updated infrastructure.

As part of the ARKode restructuring an `ARKodeButcherTable`

structure
has been added for storing Butcher tables. Functions for creating new Butcher
tables and checking their analytic order are provided along with other utility
routines. For more details see Butcher Table Data Structure.

Two changes were made in the initial step size algorithm:

- Fixed an efficiency bug where an extra call to the right hand side function was made.
- Changed the behavior of the algorithm if the max-iterations case is hit. Before the algorithm would exit with the step size calculated on the penultimate iteration. Now it will exit with the step size calculated on the final iteration.

ARKode’s dense output infrastructure has been improved to support higher-degree Hermite polynomial interpolants (up to degree 5) over the last successful time step.

ARKode’s previous direct and iterative linear solver interfaces, ARKDLS and
ARKSPILS, have been merged into a single unified linear solver interface, ARKLS,
to support any valid SUNLINSOL module. This includes `DIRECT`

and
`ITERATIVE`

types as well as the new `MATRIX_ITERATIVE`

type. Details
regarding how ARKLS utilizes linear solvers of each type as well as discussion
regarding intended use cases for user-supplied SUNLinSol implementations are
included in the chapter Description of the SUNLinearSolver module. All ARKode examples programs and the
standalone linear solver examples have been updated to use the unified linear
solver interface.

The user interface for the new ARKLS module is very similar to the previous
ARKDLS and ARKSPILS interfaces. Additionally, we note that Fortran users will
need to enlarge their `iout`

array of optional integer outputs, and update the
indices that they query for certain linear-solver-related statistics.

The names of all constructor routines for SUNDIALS-provided SUNLinSol
implementations have been updated to follow the naming convention
`SUNLinSol_*`

where `*`

is the name of the linear solver. The new names are
`SUNLinSol_Band`

, `SUNLinSol_Dense`

, `SUNLinSol_KLU`

,
`SUNLinSol_LapackBand`

, `SUNLinSol_LapackDense`

, `SUNLinSol_PCG`

,
`SUNLinSol_SPBCGS`

, `SUNLinSol_SPFGMR`

, `SUNLinSol_SPGMR`

,
`SUNLinSol_SPTFQMR`

, and `SUNLinSol_SuperLUMT`

. Solver-specific “set”
routine names have been similarly standardized. To minimize challenges in user
migration to the new names, the previous routine names may still be used; these
will be deprecated in future releases, so we recommend that users migrate to the
new names soon. All ARKode example programs and the standalone linear solver
examples have been updated to use the new naming convention.

The `SUNBandMatrix`

constructor has been simplified to remove the
storage upper bandwidth argument.

SUNDIALS integrators have been updated to utilize generic nonlinear solver modules defined through the SUNNONLINSOL API. This API will ease the addition of new nonlinear solver options and allow for external or user-supplied nonlinear solvers. The SUNNONLINSOL API and SUNDIALS provided modules are described in Description of the SUNNonlinearSolver Module and follow the same object oriented design and implementation used by the NVector, SUNMatrix, and SUNLinSol modules. Currently two SUNNONLINSOL implementations are provided, SUNNonlinSol_Newton and SUNNonlinSol_FixedPoint. These replicate the previous integrator specific implementations of a Newton iteration and an accelerated fixed-point iteration, respectively. Example programs using each of these nonlinear solver modules in a standalone manner have been added and all ARKode example programs have been updated to use generic SUNNonlinSol modules.

As with previous versions, ARKode will use the Newton solver (now
provided by SUNNonlinSol_Newton) by default. Use of the
`ARKStepSetLinear()`

routine (previously named
`ARKodeSetLinear`

) will indicate that the problem is
linearly-implicit, using only a single Newton iteration per implicit
stage. Users wishing to switch to the accelerated fixed-point solver
are now required to create a SUNNonlinSol_FixedPoint object and attach
that to ARKode, instead of calling the previous
`ARKodeSetFixedPoint`

routine. See the documentation sections
A skeleton of the user’s main program,
Nonlinear solver interface functions, and
The SUNNonlinearSolver_FixedPoint implementation for further details, or the serial C
example program `ark_brusselator_fp.c`

for an example.

Three fused vector operations and seven vector array operations have been added
to the NVECTOR API. These *optional* operations are disabled by default and may
be activated by calling vector specific routines after creating an NVector (see
Description of the NVECTOR Modules for more details). The new operations are intended
to increase data reuse in vector operations, reduce parallel communication on
distributed memory systems, and lower the number of kernel launches on systems
with accelerators. The fused operations are `N_VLinearCombination`

,
`N_VScaleAddMulti`

, and `N_VDotProdMulti`

, and the vector array operations
are `N_VLinearCombinationVectorArray`

, `N_VScaleVectorArray`

,
`N_VConstVectorArray`

, `N_VWrmsNormVectorArray`

,
`N_VWrmsNormMaskVectorArray`

, `N_VScaleAddMultiVectorArray`

, and
`N_VLinearCombinationVectorArray`

. If an NVector implementation defines any of
these operations as `NULL`

, then standard NVector operations will
automatically be called as necessary to complete the computation.

Multiple changes to the CUDA NVECTOR were made:

- Changed the
`N_VMake_Cuda`

function to take a host data pointer and a device data pointer instead of an`N_VectorContent_Cuda`

object. - Changed
`N_VGetLength_Cuda`

to return the global vector length instead of the local vector length. - Added
`N_VGetLocalLength_Cuda`

to return the local vector length. - Added
`N_VGetMPIComm_Cuda`

to return the MPI communicator used. - Removed the accessor functions in the namespace
`suncudavec`

. - Added the ability to set the
`cudaStream_t`

used for execution of the CUDA NVECTOR kernels. See the function`N_VSetCudaStreams_Cuda`

. - Added
`N_VNewManaged_Cuda`

,`N_VMakeManaged_Cuda`

, and`N_VIsManagedMemory_Cuda`

functions to accommodate using managed memory with the CUDA NVECTOR.

Multiple changes to the RAJA NVECTOR were made:

- Changed
`N_VGetLength_Raja`

to return the global vector length instead of the local vector length. - Added
`N_VGetLocalLength_Raja`

to return the local vector length. - Added
`N_VGetMPIComm_Raja`

to return the MPI communicator used. - Removed the accessor functions in the namespace
`sunrajavec`

.

A new NVECTOR implementation for leveraging OpenMP 4.5+ device offloading has been added, NVECTOR_OpenMPDEV. See The NVECTOR_OPENMPDEV Module for more details.

Fixed a bug in the CUDA NVECTOR where the `N_VInvTest`

operation could
write beyond the allocated vector data.

Fixed library installation path for multiarch systems. This fix changes the default
library installation path to `CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX/CMAKE_INSTALL_LIBDIR`

from `CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX/lib`

. `CMAKE_INSTALL_LIBDIR`

is automatically
set, but is available as a CMAKE option that can modified.

Fixed a problem with setting `sunindextype`

which would occur with
some compilers (e.g. armclang) that did not define `__STDC_VERSION__`

.

Added hybrid MPI/CUDA and MPI/RAJA vectors to allow use of more than one MPI rank when using a GPU system. The vectors assume one GPU device per MPI rank.

Changed the name of the RAJA NVECTOR library to
`libsundials_nveccudaraja.lib`

from
`libsundials_nvecraja.lib`

to better reflect that we only support CUDA
as a backend for RAJA currently.

Several changes were made to the build system:

- CMake 3.1.3 is now the minimum required CMake version.
- Deprecate the behavior of the
`SUNDIALS_INDEX_TYPE`

CMake option and added the`SUNDIALS_INDEX_SIZE`

CMake option to select the`sunindextype`

integer size. - The native CMake FindMPI module is now used to locate an MPI installation.
- If MPI is enabled and MPI compiler wrappers are not set, the build system
will check if
`CMAKE_<language>_COMPILER`

can compile MPI programs before trying to locate and use an MPI installation. - The previous options for setting MPI compiler wrappers and the executable
for running MPI programs have been have been depreated. The new options that
align with those used in native CMake FindMPI module are
`MPI_C_COMPILER`

,`MPI_CXX_COMPILER`

,`MPI_Fortran_COMPILER`

, and`MPIEXEC_EXECUTABLE`

. - When a Fortran name-mangling scheme is needed (e.g.,
`LAPACK_ENABLE`

is`ON`

) the build system will infer the scheme from the Fortran compiler. If a Fortran compiler is not available or the inferred or default scheme needs to be overridden, the advanced options`SUNDIALS_F77_FUNC_CASE`

and`SUNDIALS_F77_FUNC_UNDERSCORES`

can be used to manually set the name-mangling scheme and bypass trying to infer the scheme. - Parts of the main CMakeLists.txt file were moved to new files in the
`src`

and`example`

directories to make the CMake configuration file structure more modular.

Updated the minimum required version of CMake to 2.8.12 and enabled using rpath by default to locate shared libraries on OSX.

Fixed Windows specific problem where sunindextype was not correctly
defined when using 64-bit integers for the SUNDIALS index type. On Windows
sunindextype is now defined as the MSVC basic type `__int64`

.

Added sparse SUNMatrix “Reallocate” routine to allow specification of the nonzero storage.

Updated the KLU SUNLinearSolver module to set constants for the two reinitialization types, and fixed a bug in the full reinitialization approach where the sparse SUNMatrix pointer would go out of scope on some architectures.

Updated the “ScaleAdd” and “ScaleAddI” implementations in the sparse SUNMatrix module to more optimally handle the case where the target matrix contained sufficient storage for the sum, but had the wrong sparsity pattern. The sum now occurs in-place, by performing the sum backwards in the existing storage. However, it is still more efficient if the user-supplied Jacobian routine allocates storage for the sum \(I+\gamma J\) or \(M+\gamma J\) manually (with zero entries if needed).

Changed LICENSE install path to `instdir/include/sundials`

.

Fixed a potential memory leak in the SPGMR and SPFGMR linear solvers: if “Initialize” was called multiple times then the solver memory was reallocated (without being freed).

Fixed a minor bug in the ARKReInit routine, where a flag was incorrectly set to indicate that the problem had been resized (instead of just re-initialized).

Fixed C++11 compiler errors/warnings about incompatible use of string literals.

Updated KLU SUNLinearSolver module to use a `typedef`

for the
precision-specific solve function to be used (to avoid compiler
warnings).

Added missing typecasts for some `(void*)`

pointers (again, to avoid
compiler warnings).

Bugfix in `sunmatrix_sparse.c`

where we had used `int`

instead of
`sunindextype`

in one location.

Added missing `#include <stdio.h>`

in NVECTOR and SUNMATRIX header files.

Added missing prototype for `ARKSpilsGetNumMTSetups`

.

Fixed an indexing bug in the CUDA NVECTOR implementation of
`N_VWrmsNormMask`

and revised the RAJA NVECTOR implementation of
`N_VWrmsNormMask`

to work with mask arrays using values other than
zero or one. Replaced `double`

with `realtype`

in the RAJA vector
test functions.

Fixed compilation issue with GCC 7.3.0 and Fortran programs that do not require a SUNMatrix or SUNLinearSolver module (e.g. iterative linear solvers, explicit methods, fixed point solver, etc.).

Added NVECTOR print functions that write vector data to a specified
file (e.g. `N_VPrintFile_Serial`

).

Added `make test`

and `make test_install`

options to the build
system for testing SUNDIALS after building with `make`

and
installing with `make install`

respectively.

All interfaces to matrix structures and linear solvers have been reworked, and all example programs have been updated. The goal of the redesign of these interfaces was to provide more encapsulation and ease in interfacing custom linear solvers and interoperability with linear solver libraries.

Specific changes include:

- Added generic SUNMATRIX module with three provided implementations: dense, banded and sparse. These replicate previous SUNDIALS Dls and Sls matrix structures in a single object-oriented API.
- Added example problems demonstrating use of generic SUNMATRIX modules.
- Added generic SUNLINEARSOLVER module with eleven provided implementations: dense, banded, LAPACK dense, LAPACK band, KLU, SuperLU_MT, SPGMR, SPBCGS, SPTFQMR, SPFGMR, PCG. These replicate previous SUNDIALS generic linear solvers in a single object-oriented API.
- Added example problems demonstrating use of generic SUNLINEARSOLVER modules.
- Expanded package-provided direct linear solver (Dls) interfaces and scaled, preconditioned, iterative linear solver (Spils) interfaces to utilize generic SUNMATRIX and SUNLINEARSOLVER objects.
- Removed package-specific, linear solver-specific, solver modules (e.g. CVDENSE, KINBAND, IDAKLU, ARKSPGMR) since their functionality is entirely replicated by the generic Dls/Spils interfaces and SUNLINEARSOLVER/SUNMATRIX modules. The exception is CVDIAG, a diagonal approximate Jacobian solver available to CVODE and CVODES.
- Converted all SUNDIALS example problems to utilize new generic SUNMATRIX and SUNLINEARSOLVER objects, along with updated Dls and Spils linear solver interfaces.
- Added Spils interface routines to ARKode, CVODE, CVODES, IDA and IDAS to allow specification of a user-provided “JTSetup” routine. This change supports users who wish to set up data structures for the user-provided Jacobian-times-vector (“JTimes”) routine, and where the cost of one JTSetup setup per Newton iteration can be amortized between multiple JTimes calls.

Two additional NVECTOR implementations were added – one for CUDA and one for RAJA vectors. These vectors are supplied to provide very basic support for running on GPU architectures. Users are advised that these vectors both move all data to the GPU device upon construction, and speedup will only be realized if the user also conducts the right-hand-side function evaluation on the device. In addition, these vectors assume the problem fits on one GPU. Further information about RAJA, users are referred to the web site, https://software.llnl.gov/RAJA/. These additions are accompanied by additions to various interface functions and to user documentation.

All indices for data structures were updated to a new `sunindextype`

that can be configured to be a 32- or 64-bit integer data index type.
`sunindextype`

is defined to be `int32_t`

or `int64_t`

when
portable types are supported, otherwise it is defined as `int`

or
`long int`

. The Fortran interfaces continue to use `long int`

for
indices, except for their sparse matrix interface that now uses the
new `sunindextype`

. This new flexible capability for index types
includes interfaces to PETSc, *hypre*, SuperLU_MT, and KLU with either
32-bit or 64-bit capabilities depending how the user configures
SUNDIALS.

To avoid potential namespace conflicts, the macros defining
`booleantype`

values `TRUE`

and `FALSE`

have been changed to
`SUNTRUE`

and `SUNFALSE`

respectively.

Temporary vectors were removed from preconditioner setup and solve routines for all packages. It is assumed that all necessary data for user-provided preconditioner operations will be allocated and stored in user-provided data structures.

The file `include/sundials_fconfig.h`

was added. This file contains
SUNDIALS type information for use in Fortran programs.

Added functions SUNDIALSGetVersion and SUNDIALSGetVersionNumber to get SUNDIALS release version information at runtime.

The build system was expanded to support many of the xSDK-compliant keys. The xSDK is a movement in scientific software to provide a foundation for the rapid and efficient production of high-quality, sustainable extreme-scale scientific applications. More information can be found at, https://xsdk.info.

In addition, numerous changes were made to the build system.
These include the addition of separate `BLAS_ENABLE`

and `BLAS_LIBRARIES`

CMake variables, additional error checking during CMake configuration,
minor bug fixes, and renaming CMake options to enable/disable examples
for greater clarity and an added option to enable/disable Fortran 77 examples.
These changes included changing `ENABLE_EXAMPLES`

to `ENABLE_EXAMPLES_C`

,
changing `CXX_ENABLE`

to `EXAMPLES_ENABLE_CXX`

, changing `F90_ENABLE`

to
`EXAMPLES_ENABLE_F90`

, and adding an `EXAMPLES_ENABLE_F77`

option.

Corrections and additions were made to the examples, to installation-related files, and to the user documentation.

We have included numerous bugfixes and enhancements since the v1.0.2 release.

The bugfixes include:

- For each linear solver, the various solver performance counters are
now initialized to 0 in both the solver specification function and
in the solver’s
`linit`

function. This ensures that these solver counters are initialized upon linear solver instantiation as well as at the beginning of the problem solution. - The choice of the method vs embedding the Billington and TRBDF2 explicit Runge-Kutta methods were swapped, since in those the lower-order coefficients result in an A-stable method, while the higher-order coefficients do not. This change results in significantly improved robustness when using those methods.
- A bug was fixed for the situation where a user supplies a vector of absolute tolerances, and also uses the vector Resize() functionality.
- A bug was fixed wherein a user-supplied Butcher table without an embedding is supplied, and the user is running with either fixed time steps (or they do adaptivity manually); previously this had resulted in an error since the embedding order was below 1.
- Numerous aspects of the documentation were fixed and/or clarified.

The feature changes/enhancements include:

- Two additional NVECTOR implementations were added – one for Hypre (parallel) ParVector vectors, and one for PETSc vectors. These additions are accompanied by additions to various interface functions and to user documentation.
- Each NVECTOR module now includes a function,
`N_VGetVectorID`

, that returns the NVECTOR module name. - A memory leak was fixed in the banded preconditioner and banded-block-diagonal preconditioner interfaces. In addition, updates were done to return integers from linear solver and preconditioner ‘free’ routines.
- The Krylov linear solver Bi-CGstab was enhanced by removing a redundant dot product. Various additions and corrections were made to the interfaces to the sparse solvers KLU and SuperLU_MT, including support for CSR format when using KLU.
- The ARKode implicit predictor algorithms were updated: methods 2 and 3 were improved slightly, a new predictor approach was added, and the default choice was modified.
- The underlying sparse matrix structure was enhanced to allow both CSR and CSC matrices, with CSR supported by the KLU linear solver interface. ARKode interfaces to the KLU solver from both C and Fortran were updated to enable selection of sparse matrix type, and a Fortran-90 CSR example program was added.
- The missing
`ARKSpilsGetNumMtimesEvals()`

function was added – this had been included in the previous documentation but had not been implemented. - The handling of integer codes for specifying built-in ARKode Butcher tables was enhanced. While a global numbering system is still used, methods now have #defined names to simplify the user interface and to streamline incorporation of new Butcher tables into ARKode.
- The maximum number of Butcher table stages was increased from 8 to 15 to accommodate very high order methods, and an 8th-order adaptive ERK method was added.
- Support was added for the explicit and implicit methods in an additive Runge-Kutta method to utilize different stage times, solution and embedding coefficients, to support new SSP-ARK methods.
- The FARKODE interface was extended to include a routine to set scalar/array-valued residual tolerances, to support Fortran applications with non-identity mass-matrices.

This user guide is a combination of general usage instructions and specific example programs. We expect that some readers will want to concentrate on the general instructions, while others will refer mostly to the examples, and the organization is intended to accommodate both styles.

The structure of this document is as follows:

- In the next section we provide a thorough presentation of the underlying mathematics used within the ARKode family of solvers.
- We follow this with an overview of how the source code for ARKode is organized.
- The largest section follows, providing a full account of the ARKStep module user interface, including a description of all user-accessible functions and outlines for usage in serial and parallel applications. Since ARKode is written in C, we first present a section on using ARKStep for C and C++ applications, followed with a separate section on using ARKode within Fortran applications.
- The much smaller section describing the ERKStep time-stepping module, using ERKStep for C and C++ applications, follows.
- Subsequent sections discuss shared features between ARKode and the rest of the SUNDIALS library: vector data structures, matrix data structures, linear solver data structures, and the installation procedure.
- The final sections catalog the full set of ARKode constants, that are used for both input specifications and return codes, and the full set of Butcher tables that are packaged with ARKode.

All SUNDIALS packages are released open source, under the BSD 3-Clause license. The only requirements of the license are preservation of copyright and a standard disclaimer of liability. The full text of the license and an additional notice are provided below and may also be found in the LICENSE and NOTICE files provided with all SUNDIALS packages.

**PLEASE NOTE** If you are using SUNDIALS with any third party
libraries linked in (e.g., LAPACK, KLU, SuperLU_MT, PETSc, or
*hypre*), be sure to review the respective license of the package as
that license may have more restrictive terms than the SUNDIALS
license. For example, if someone builds SUNDIALS with a statically
linked KLU, the build is subject to terms of the more-restrictive LGPL
license (which is what KLU is released with) and *not* the SUNDIALS
BSD license anymore.

Copyright (c) 2002-2020, Lawrence Livermore National Security and Southern Methodist University.

All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

- Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
- Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
- Neither the name of the copyright holder nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS ‘’AS IS’’ AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

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LLNL-CODE-667205 (ARKODE)

UCRL-CODE-155951 (CVODE)

UCRL-CODE-155950 (CVODES)

UCRL-CODE-155952 (IDA)

UCRL-CODE-237203 (IDAS)

LLNL-CODE-665877 (KINSOL)