FARKODE, an Interface Module for FORTRAN Applications

The FARKODE interface module is a package of C functions which support the use of the ARKStep time-stepping module for the solution of ODE systems

\[M\, \dot{y} = f_E(t,y) + f_I(t,y),\]

in a mixed Fortran/C setting. While ARKode is written in C, it is assumed here that the user’s calling program and user-supplied problem-defining routines are written in Fortran. We assume only minimal Fortran capabilities; specifically that the Fortran compiler support full Fortran77 functionality (although more modern standards are similarly supported). This package provides the necessary interfaces to ARKODE for the majority of supplied serial and parallel NVECTOR implementations.

Important note on portability

In this package, the names of the interface functions, and the names of the Fortran user routines called by them, appear as dummy names which are mapped to actual values by a series of definitions in the header files. By default, those mapping definitions depend in turn on the C macro F77_FUNC defined in the header file sundials_config.h. The mapping defined by F77_FUNC in turn transforms the C interface names to match the name-mangling approach used by the supplied Fortran compiler.

By “name-mangling”, we mean that due to the case-independent nature of the Fortran language, Fortran compilers convert all subroutine and object names to use either all lower-case or all upper-case characters, and append either zero, one or two underscores as a prefix or suffix the the name. For example, the Fortran subroutine MyFunction() will be changed to one of myfunction, MYFUNCTION, myfunction__, MYFUNCTION_, and so on, depending on the Fortran compiler used.

SUNDIALS determines this name-mangling scheme at configuration time (see ARKode Installation Procedure).

Fortran Data Types

Throughout this documentation, we will refer to data types according to their usage in C. The equivalent types to these may vary, depending on your computer architecture and on how SUNDIALS was compiled (see ARKode Installation Procedure). A Fortran user should first determine the equivalent types for their architecture and compiler, and then take care that all arguments passed through this Fortran/C interface are declared of the appropriate type.

Integers: SUNDIALS uses int, long int and sunindextype types. As discussed in ARKode Installation Procedure, at compilation SUNDIALS allows the configuration of the ‘index’ type, that accepts values of 32-bit signed and 64-bit signed. This choice dictates the size of a SUNDIALS sunindextype variable.

  • int – equivalent to an INTEGER or INTEGER*4 in Fortran
  • long int – this will depend on the computer architecture:
    • 32-bit architecture – equivalent to an INTEGER or INTEGER*4 in Fortran
    • 64-bit architecture – equivalent to an INTEGER*8 in Fortran
  • sunindextype – this will depend on the SUNDIALS configuration:
    • 32-bit – equivalent to an INTEGER or INTEGER*4 in Fortran
    • 64-bit – equivalent to an INTEGER*8 in Fortran

Real numbers: As discussed in ARKode Installation Procedure, at compilation SUNDIALS allows the configuration option --with-precision, that accepts values of single, double or extended (the default is double). This choice dictates the size of a realtype variable. The corresponding Fortran types for these realtype sizes are:

  • single – equivalent to a REAL or REAL*4 in Fortran
  • double – equivalent to a DOUBLE PRECISION or REAL*8 in Fortran
  • extended – equivalent to a REAL*16 in Fortran

We note that when SUNDIALS is compiled with Fortran interfaces enabled, a file sundials/sundials_fconfig.h is placed in the installation’s include directory, containing information about the Fortran types that correspond to the C types of the configured SUNDIALS installation. This file may be “included” by Fortran routines, as long as the compiler supports the Fortran90 standard (or higher), as shown in the ARKode example programs ark_bruss.f90, ark_bruss1D_FEM_klu.f90 and fark_heat2D.f90.

Details on the Fortran interface to ARKode are provided in the following sub-sections: